The Morphic 3 Project

Morphic 3 is a research and development project aimed at building the next standard in 2D user interfaces. It has been (and still is) developed exclusively by me on my free time, since 2007.

You can read more about Morphic 3 here.

New! You can see the Cuis and Morphic 3 talk at the Smalltalks conference in Buenos Aires here.

Vector graphics with proper anti-aliasing:

All you ever heard about graphics anti-aliasing is wrong! Now that I got your attention, what I really mean is that the rendering software and algorithms that are usually presented as state of the art, in fact are not. This includes many textbooks. I'm talking about the usual Pixel Coverage technique, and the more expensive but sometimes better looking Supersampling technique. See  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti_aliasing, in particular the Signal Processing approach to anti-aliasing.

Anti-aliasing is usually considered a technique to avoid "stairway" artifacts on rendered images. This is a simplistic view on the problem. Aliasing is a consequence of sampling continuous functions (images, photos, sound, etc). Makers of digital cameras and audio software know and use the theory behind it. You can read more at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyquist–Shannon_sampling_theorem.

Researches know all this. The best text books say it. However, existing graphics software completely ignore the theory. In fact, I developed new drawing algorithms that give better results than those in Cairo, AGG, etc.

The methods to do anti-aliased 2D images currently in use are Super-Sampling and Pixel-Coverage.

For super sampling to effectively avoid aliasing, the super sampled display should have high enough resolution to be above the Nyquist frequency of the image. Usually this is not the case, the super sampled display will also have aliasing (although less), and aliasing is reduced but not completely avoided. Besides, doing super sampling with a really good resolution (for example 64x) requires a huge amount of computation, and is too slow even if run in a modern GPU.

Pixel coverage is no better, as it behaves as an infinite resolution super sampling, but using a very bad filter: A step filter in the spatial domain. The frequency response of such filter has no real cutoff frequency, and therefore it doesn't bound aliasing. Besides the filter is fixed: exactly one pixel wide and high. This is a bad choice as it doesn't take into account the Kell factor.

The sampling theorem is about 80 years old. It is the base (together with Fourier analysis) of most of the DSP (Digital Signal Processing) field. It is therefore the basis of digital audio and photography.

My quest for higher quality resulted in the idea of applying the Sampling theory for all rendering. This allows for mathematically proved alias free rendering. As no existing application does this, my samples set a new level of quality for SVG rendering.

I have been working on these ideas for the last 3 years, after finishing my Ms.Sc. in CS on Image and Signal Processing. I had come up with new algorithms to draw basic elements using this theory. What you see are the first practical result of all this work. It is done by modeling all the objects to be drawn as continuous functions that specify color at each (x, y) point. This functions are properly filtered and sampled at the actual position of the pixel color elements (sub pixels).

See it in action:

Warning. Older non-LCD displays do smooth the images and can't make use of sub pixel rendering. The quality enhancement here is most visible on current LCD displays connected via a digital interface (actually anything but the old VGA cable). The perceived quality also depends on the observer. You might need to come a bit closer to the display to fully see it.

Left is Inkscape. Right is Morphic 3.

Inkscape rendering Morphic 3

Inkscape calls the Cairo graphics library, that uses Pixel Coverage. You can see individual pixels. Besides you can also see a reddish shadow at the right of black areas and a blueish shadow at their left. Morphic 3 exhibits none of these defects. A closeup photo of the display makes them more evident.

Left is an actual photo of Inkscape in my display. Right is same for Morphic 3.

Click on any of them to get the original jpeg file from my camera.

Photo of Inkscape rendering Photo of Morphic3 rendering

Left is Inkscape (same as before), right is Morphic 3, with only whole pixel anti aliasing

Morphic 3 gives great results even if restricted to whole pixel anti aliasing.

Inkscape rendering Morphic 3 whole pixel rendering

This is the original svg file for all these samples.

What follows is a test of linear gradients, with some geometrical transformations applied. Again, the image at the right is done by Morphic 3 and the one at the left is done by Inkscape.

Left is Inkscape. Right is Morphic 3.

Inkscape rendering Morphic 3 rendering


The biggest difference is that Inkscape creates the usual colored shadow around the thick black line, blueish at the left and reddish at the right. Morphic 3 does no artifact. Click on any of them to see the original SVG rendered by your browser. All browsers I tested give lower quality than Inkscape or Morphic 3 in this sample.


The next example is interesting because it exhibits a common problem with vector graphics. If you have adjacent polygons, the anti aliased edges superimpose and create this white seams artifact. You can see that the Morphic 3 image is a lot less pixelated. But look below...

 Left is Inkscape. Right is Morphic 3.

Inkscape rendering Morphic 3 rendering

Morphic 3 seamless rendering

Morphic 3, with adjacent polygon fix

This last one is done with a new technique I developed for Morphic 3 that completely avoids the problem, without creating other artifacts and without any need for user intervention.

Isn't that cool?

Let's see a few more examples. Click on any of them to get the original SVG file.

 Left is Inkscape. Right is Morphic 3.

Inkscape Morphic 3

Left is Inkscape. Right is Morphic 3.

Inkscape Morphic 3

I hope you enjoyed this tour on the highest-quality 2d rendering ever!


Thanks for reading.


 
 
 
   2006-2010 Juan M. Vuletich